Leif Andersson Henriksbergsvägen 104 136 67 Vendelsö 2015-03-31 - 2015-05-05 MY WORLD-PICTURE The world-number ================ A finite world can be divided into a finite number of quantas that are so small that they only have the properties "position" and "is/is-not". Each position can be given a number and the positions can be arranged in sequence to a digital number, the world-number. The world-number is a one-dimensional projection of the world. The projection is bijektiv which means that the projection contains all the information needed to recreate the object. The world-number is a complete and accurate projection of the world. In the same way as a television transmitter's one-dimensional signal contains all the information about two-dimensional TV images the world-number contains all information about the world. But a one-dimensional image gives poor visibility. What is lacking is that adjoining positions do not always lie next to each other in a one-dimensional picture. In a one-dimensional picture, each position has only two adjacent positions. In a two-dimensional image, each position has four adjacent positions. If you project a two-dimensional motif onto a one-dimensional picture thus, two of the four adjacent positions will no longer be adjoining. To project a one-dimensional picture on a two-dimensional picture you can use integer division of the position number. You determine a row-length and divides the position number with the row-length. Div then becomes y-coordinate and mod becomes x-coordinate. If you have chosen the row-length appropriately, then the four adjoining positions are restored. To get to a three-dimensional picture, you divide by the number of bits per two-dimensionell picture. Div becomes z-coordinate. Then you divide mod by the row-length for the two-dimensionel picture and get div as y-coordinate and mod as x-coordinate. It gives a picture where each position has six adjacent positions. For a four-dimensional image, you do the same to get t-coordinate, z-coordinate, y-coordinate and x-coordinate. It gives a picture where each position has eight adjacent positions. A four-dimensional picture gives a good description of an event's location (longitude, latitude, height and time). A quantum can only interact with adjacent positions. It can change places with an adjacent empty position. When that happens, the smalest possible event occurs. I call it a unit-event UE. Each time a unit-event occurs anywhere in the world the world changes. The world-number change because all positions get new unused numbers and the world-number is prolonged. I can then define a change-parameter that I call parameter-time. The parametertime is incremented each time a unit-event occurs. To get a measure of how far from interaction two points are, you can add their coordinate differences vectorically. This is called distance between points. Distance change divided by parameter time is called speed. One unit-event means a distance change of a position distance and takes one unit of parameter-time. This is the greatest possible speed. Thus there is, no infinitely high speed. In a world that consists of h quantities, a certain quantity will be moved after h unit-events. The movement will be a position distance, that is quantum-step. The highest possible speed will then be 1 / h quantum-steps per parameter-time unit. That's what we usually talk about as light-speed. Ether ==== A certain quantum changes place each time when h unit-event has occured. This also applies to the quantas included in what I call "I". There is a peculiarity of the world that makes the whole quanta-group that is me seem to move in the same direction. And even objects in my surroundings seem to move in the same direction so that I think they stand still. Movements are not completely random. There is a link between quantum A and quantum B which means that if quantum A takes a step in a certain direction quantum B is likely to take a step in the same direction. For the quantas I consist of, they must move one step when h UE has occured. They thus move at light speed and they move mainly in the same direction. So I travel with light speed in a certain direction. I can then insert a four-dimensional coordinate system and rotate it so that one coordinate axis points in my direction of travel. I call that axis coordinate-time. Qvanta behaves as if they are floating in a medium that can flow in a certain direction. I call this medium "ether". So I hover in and follow along an ether in the way as fishes in a river floats in the water and follows the rivers water stream. It is the ether that causes the connection between cause and effect. If all quantum movements happened completely randomly without any connection between them would not exist some connection between cause and effect. But the ether means that a movement of quantum A increases the probability that a nearby quantity B will move in a certain way. The migration of A thus becomes the reason I can predict how the movement of B will be. A hundred years ago, the debate was lively around the issue "Can the ether coordinate quantities at a great distance? ". After much searching, it was found that there seems to be no immediate impact at a great distance. The coordination of the ether applies only to nearby quantities. One reason cannot therefore give immediate remote effect. There is a maximum possible speed for the coordination of the ether of quantas movements. If an event means that quantum A takes a step in a direction that deviates from the main direction, the ether can coordinate the movement of the adjacent quantity B so that this also gets a directional deviation. And B can influence C and so on. The information about an event that gives direction deviation can thus be spread through the ether. And it's not just the leading quantity that can get one direction change, even quantities on the side can be affected. This means that the information of the direction change is also spread to the sides, i.e. perpendicular towards the coordinate time axis. One can of course claim that air does not exist. That there are only nitrogen molecules and oxygen molecules and that phenomena such as sound should be described as the interaction between molecules. But there are some benefits of using the term air and to assign air characteristics such as pressure and density. In the same way, one can say that there is no ether and that phenomena such as light should be described as interaction between quanta. But there are some advantages of using the term ether and to assign the ether properties such as capacitance and inductance. Light ==== I sometimes use the word light in the sense of "electromagnetic radiation" and sometimes in the sense of "electromagnetic radiation in the visible wavelength range". I think it is clear from the context what I mean. Light is a fundamental part of the world. That was already realized by the author of First chapter of the bible. In the Book of Genesis the Creation is described by the worda "And God Said may there be Light and it was ight". For me to know something about an event that occurs remotely some information about the event must reach me. I have to be able to see the event in some way. The image of the event that the light conveys has proved to be the fastest way that information about the event can reach me. The ether has inductance and capacitance. This means that Maxwell's equations provide one light-speed. Thus, light cannot transmit information faster than the light-speed allows. If the sun suddenly went out, there is no way for me to know it until the eight minutes has passed that it takes for light to travel from the sun to the earth. If I can in no way know anything about an event until its picture via the light reaches me, does that event occur when the picture leavs it or when the picture reaches me? Consider the following situation: I project on a rectilinear, right-angled, four-dimensional coordinate system. I rate all axes in the same unit, for example, light-tone customers (roughly a foot). Nothing happens in y-direction or z-direction and I can therefore look at a two-dimensional coordinate system with only x-axis and t-axis. I put the t-axis in the direction of the etheric wind. In the starting point at the parameter time τ = 0 I am in the origin and an event occurs on the x-axis at the distance x_{1}. From the event, a picture is taken which, like me, floats in the air and moves towards me with light-speed. When I traveled t_{1}= x_{1}the picture reaches me at parameter time τ_{1}when I am at x=0 and t = t_{1}. For me, the event does not occur at t = 0 but at t = t_{1}. I can't know anything at all about the event until its picture reaches me. I live in a world where I only see distant events in the form of the pictures that reach me. Thus, in the projection that I see, events are replaced with pictures of events. There are not only distance to events but also distance to pictures of events The pictures of the events are important. It is when the distance to an event's picture becomes zero, ie when t = x_{1}, I get to know about the event. Before that I know nothing about the event and nothing about where the picture is. Minkowski pointed out that if you use an imaginary t-axis, the usual distance expression √ (x_{2}+ y_{2}+ z_{2}+ t_{2}) is replaced by √ (x_{2}+ y_{2}+ z_{2}- t_{2}). Namely of a "distance" that becomes zero when the image appears. I call this distance concept for Minkowsky distance. The Minkowsky distance can be seen as a measure of the distance to the picture of the event. But it is not a picture traveling along a straight line between (x_{1}0) and (0 t_{1}). It is an image that travels via a circular arc with the center at the origin. But if I could decide which way the picture takes, I could say something about it before it reaches me. I can't do that and therefore I can use whatever distance I want as long as it becomes zero when it arrives. If the ether-flow is vortex-free, one can see t as a potential and a potential-change between A and B says nothing about the path between A and B. At short distances, the picture light transfers can be confirmed by an audio-image or I can move to the place of the event to see the consequences of it, but for remote events, the light-picture is all I can know about the event. Then I do not see a world of events but a world of event-pictures. I live in a projection where events have been replaced by event images. If a spaceship passes me and holds up a clock and a meter-bar the clock runs slower and the meter becomes shorter in my world of event images. If I try to confirm this by catching the spaceship and boarding for to check the clock and the meter-bar I find that the clock goes as fast as mine and the meter-bar is as long as mine. It's only in my world of event-pictures that the clock goes slower and the meter-bar becomes shorter. But what is the reality? It depends on what I mean by reality. I live in a world that affects my senses and it is only through my senses as I can form a picture of this world. So for me, the reality is the image of the world that my senses give, that is, a world of the event-pictures that reach me and affect my senses. For these, it applies that at τ = 0 if an event occurs at t = 0 and x = x_{1}the picture of the event floats in the ether-wind and the picture also moves towards me with light-speed. At τ = τ_{1}, the picture arrives to the t-axis at t = t_{1}= x_{1}. I am then at t = t_{1}and can receive the picture. All events that occur at τ = 0 at t ≠ 0 reach the t-axis where I'm not. So I never get to know anything about these events. It's just the small part of the world that at τ = 0 has t = 0 that I can know something about. xxxxxxxxxxxxxx Speed ========= By speed I mean movement (distance) divided by the parameter time for the movement. Suppose an aircraft fires a forward directed gun. From the gun, three signals start, a ball. a sound pulse (bang) and a light pulse (flash). The ball-speed relative to observer on the ground becomes the sum of the aircraft's speed and the gun's exit speed. But for both the sound pulse and the light pulse, the speed becomes independent of the speed of the aircraft. Both sound and light propagate at a rate determined by the propagation medium and thus independent of the source. Sound is a mechanical wave motion in a medium that has pressure and density. The sound speed is determined by the pressure and density of the medium. Correspondingly, light is an electric wave motion in a medium having capacitance and inductance. The light speed is determined by the capacitance and the inductance of the medium. Maxwell showed that the light speed is one divided by the root of the product of the dielectric constant and the magnetic permeability of the medium. If I measure sound velocity inside the aircraft cabin, I get the same value as if I measure on the ground. The reason is that the air in the cabin follows the aircraft and lies still in relation to it in the same way as the air at the ground lies still in relation to the ground. But if I step out on the airplanes wing I can find that the speed of the wind affects the sound speed so that it is different in the traveldirection of the plane and in the opposite direction. But that assumes that the wind is really blowing through my measuring device. I An aircraft's speed is so much lower than the light speed that it is more difficult to measure the influence of a vehicles speed on the speed of light but in principle should the same thing apply also to the light speed. That is, a speed wind in the form of an ether-wind should give deviations when measuring light speed. But only if the ether-wind must blows through the measuring device. The Earth is, as well as anything else floating in the surrounding ether in the same way as a balloon floats in the air. And in a balloon basket it never blows. That various objects can move in relation to each other is because different parts of the ether can move in relation to each other in the same way as the air moves differently in different points and causes balloons and clouds to move relative to each other. =================== In 1887, Michelson and Morley conducted an experiment that is sometimes called the world's most famous failure. They tried to measure Earth's velocity relative to the surrounding ether. They measured the speed of light in a way that corresponds to measuring sound speed in a cabin in a balloon basket and of course found that there was a no ether-wind that affected the measurement. Through Michelson-Morley's measuring device, no ether wind blows. One way to enabling an ether wind through the measuring device is to use so remote measuring points that they probably are not in the same area of the ether. But about distant points we know nothing but the pictures that reach us through the light. When I measure distances between distant points, I must therefore take into account the running time of light and speed, thus I have to use the light speed I would measure. But if you measure with a measuring device where the medium flows in relation to measuring device. For example, light speed in water flowing through measuring device. Should not then the movement of the water affect the light, so-called dragging? In 1851, Fizeau measured the light's dragging in flowing water. He found a dragging which was dependent on the refractive index of the light, but for n = 1, the dragging was zero. What happens to the dragging if you see the speed v as a turning of the coordinate system so that the coordinate time axes form the angle α so that v = c sinα ? The light speed in the xyz line is a vector perpendicular to the t-axis. When turning the coordinate system the projection in xyz-link becomes c cosα . The light speed thus changes with c (1 - cosα ). But for small angles applies that sinα ≈ α and (1 - cosα ) ≈ α^{2}/ 2. At the small speeds that Fizeau used, the influence on the speed of light is thus immeasurably small. Fizeaus dragging =============== Fizeau found that the drag in flowing water at the velocity v was v (1-1 / n2) where n is the refractive index of the water. This result fits well with the theory of relativity. You put it together with the speed of the ether in water to v + c / n. One therefore thinks that light has one speed in relation to the ether (c / n) and that the ether has a speed in relation to the lab (v). But you do not measure with meter bars and watches in the water. One must take into account the difference between the lab's meter bars and watches and the lab's image of the water meter bars and watches. It gives one length contraction and time dilation. Taking this into account, you get for small values of v to Fizau's results. Thus, a relativistic description of Fizau's results do not contradict the idea of an ether. On the contrary, it assumes that light propagates in an ether and that there is no possibility to read meter bars and clocks without a distance-dependent delay which is the time of light travels in the ether. But how does it look in the etherwind picture? In the etherwind picture, speed is not just a vector. An ordinary speed is a coordinate rotation. Light speed and water speed are not transformed in the same way. The refractive index n means that the direction of flow of the ether in the water forms the angle β with the direction of flow of the ether in the lab. The angle β is determined by cos β = 1 / n. The projection of the water's light velocity on the lab's coordinate system is thus c cos β = c / n. If you give water a speed, an observer in the water who measures with a meter bar and clock in the water will see how the lab coordinate system rotates the angle β + α where cos β = 1 / n and c sin α = v. Projection of light speed of the lab is then c cos (β + α) = c cosβ cosα - c sinβ sinα. For small α, cosα is α ≈1. The speed v is thus transformed into a dragging of - c sinβ sinα= - c (√(1 - cos^{2}β))sinα = - (√ (1 - 1/n^{2})) v.. The speed v is thus transformed to a dragging with the factor g = - (√ (1 - 1/n^{2})). But you do not measure in the water with water meter bar and clock. To get back to the lab transforms one draws the water's drag as a speed, ie with the factor g on g^{2}v = (1 - 1/n^{2}) v. That is, the dragging found by Fizeau.